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凡事有個極限

Chomsky曾經說,以色列本來是個國家,擁有一定的軍事力量;但是,在美國的大力軍援和狼狽為奸之後,變得比較像個「擁有國家外殼的軍事機器」。但我倒覺得以色列比較像個「擁有軍隊的黑社會」。為什麼呢?因為,就算打仗也有許多規矩,可是,以色列統統不願遵守,與黑社會無異。

比方說,不得抓(對方)平民充當人肉盾牌在前面擋子彈或執行軍事行動或危險任務。可是,以色列偏偏最擅於這一套(之前那位懂得頗多卻不知道為什麼喜歡故意把話講相反的Gringo,竟然把這項以色列的專利罪行給誣賴到被害一方巴勒斯坦人身上)。

去年四月,人權觀察組織(Human Rights Watch)曾經針對這個強抓對方平民充當人肉盾牌的問題,提出一篇標題為「一個黑暗時刻」(IN A DARK HOUR)的二十四頁調查報告(摘要新聞稿見http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/04/israel041802.htm)。

報告中說,以色列這個行徑,已經變成一種習慣,一種例行公事(routine),是有系統地進行,而不是臨時起意的個案行為。因此,國際特赦組和人權觀察組織等七個國際人權團體為此聯合向以色列高等法院告狀,請求調查並制止這項罪行。

以色列政府起初否認,後來在眾多證據前被迫承認,甚至還明令禁止軍方此後不可再犯(這種行為還需要人家提醒嗎?)。至於是否真的沒有再犯,哈巴狗記者還不太清楚。

另外,就算打仗也還有一些規矩,比方說,不可炸醫院、不可射擊救護車、不可炸民生設施(如水井、水廠、電廠、糧食倉庫等)、不可殺小孩、不可炸教堂、學校等建築,可是,很不幸,這些行為統統是以血列軍隊的專長。

比方說,之前提過的那部紀錄片 「Jeremy Hardy versus The Israeli Army」上有個人肉盾牌,叫什麼我忘了,是個英國人,他說他的任務之一就是坐救護車,陪病人進進出出,藉此防止或減少攻擊或騷擾。

比方說,明明只是五分鐘的行程,可是,以色列軍隊在崗哨處往往會把救護車攔下來,刁難東刁難西,讓你開五十分鐘也開不到醫院,也陳f人就因此而失去救治的黃金時間。如果有個人權觀察員在場干涉,他們或許就比較不敢亂來。

再比方說,破壞水源、攻擊民宅等等,更簡直是以色列軍隊每天必做的功課;管你小孩大人,一律照殺,連聖母瑪麗亞雕像都滿身彈孔。

由此看來,Chomsky說以色列不是一個國家而是一部有著國家外形的軍事機器,實在還是過譽,因為即使軍隊也仍然有許多國際規範必須遵守。我看它倒比較像不良幫派,像專門魚肉鄉民的黑社會,毫無規矩可言。一般黑社會都還是有個幫規,而以色列卻連個幫規也沒有,要打要殺要關要炸要鏟平,好像全看老子心情,無從預料也無法追究。

就算真的打仗,就算讓你逮到敵軍,你也不能虐待他,更何況這根本不是在打仗,因為一邊是武力世界第四強,一邊則是毫無防衛之力,唯一武器就是石頭和人肉炸彈。可是呢,不要說對付巴勒斯坦人,就算對付這些手無寸鐵的人肉盾牌,也連個戰犯的待遇都沒有。要抓就抓,不用理由;要揍就揍,要踢就踢,隨他高興;要砸就砸,不必考慮。可是,任何一個「文明」國家要抓人,不是要有個罪名或指控嗎?任何一個「文明」國家,就算是歹徒的家,也沒有權力任意破壞人家家裏的東西吧?!

底下第一封e-mail是剛剛收到,之前還有好幾封,講兩個兩天前被抓的英國人肉盾牌,一男一女。以色列軍方說抓就抓,抓去之後,連個罪名也沒有,什麼時候放人也不知道。而且,裏頭傳出的消息說,軍方不斷對她們疲勞審訊,不讓他們睡覺。

從以上種種來看,你覺得以色列究竟像個國家?還是像個無法無天的黑社會?


Ishai Menuchin(以夏門努清)

以色列最近甚至要求入境佔領區的外國人士必須簽下一紙你不得不「同意」的「同意書」(原版內容如第二封e-mail所示),你必須同意你的死活他一概不負責,你必須同意放棄你的種種基本權利等等,甚至還必須聲明與ISM沒有任何聯繫。可是,有誰會在自由意志下簽這種「同意書」?而且,ISM的人肉盾牌又不是「恐怖份子」,憑什麼不准大家與之有瓜葛呢?ISM不但不恐怖,今年三月底還獲得Oscar Romero Award的提名。這個獎,旨在頒給那些以自己的生命和自由為代價從事和平抵抗運動的人或團體。當年蹲黑牢的曼德拉,就曾獲得這個獎。

ISM進入了最後名單,但後來沒有獲獎,獎頒給了Yesh Gvul的創辦人Ishai Menuchin。Ishai Menuchin今年46歲,1983年服役時,因為拒絕服從命令侵略黎巴嫩而入獄35天。在他公開抗命後,有兩百個以色列士兵跟進。同年,創辦了Yesh Gvul。三年後1985年收錄Chomsky等人的文章,編輯出版了一本書叫「服從的極限」(The Limits of Obedience),闡揚Yesh Gvul之「讓良心來下命令」的想法。據說是第一本用希伯來文寫成的有關「不服從」思想的書。

Ishai Menuchin大學主修哲學與心理學,博士改唸政治學,論文題目是:「Moral Obligations, Justification and Civil Disobedience in Democratic Societies.」(民主社會的道德義務與證成及市民不服從)。1998 年拿到學位,三年後,2001 年任教於希伯來大學(The Hebrew University)政治系。

他所創辦的Yesh Gvul,不但是個團體,也是一種運動概念,它鼓勵以色列士兵拒絕服從命令,拒絕在巴勒斯坦佔領區執行勤務,讓良心而不是讓軍令來主導自己的行為。「Yesh Gvul」這兩個字翻譯成英文,就是 「There is a limit !」(凡事有個極限)的意思。所謂極限,用 Menuchin 一句動人的名言最能講清楚,那就是:「總該有些事是正直的人絕對不做的」(There are things that decent people don't do.)。


良心犯入獄

哈巴狗記者很喜歡這個概念。我們儘管胡作非為,但是,一切胡作非為總該有個極限,世上總該有些不論如何我們都不做的事。Yesh Gvul的文宣上說,就算一個士兵,他也不是無條件服從命令,當某個命令與我們的良心起衝突時,這個命令就效。「良心」就是個底限,如果沒有這個底限,沒有這個limit,這世界不是很恐怖嗎?

就算無法無天的黑幫也該遵守一個底限,不管這個底限多麼低,你總得要有一個。可是,世上這些號稱文明的國家,它們在外頭的所作所為,實在令人傷心且寒心,因為那種壞那種邪惡,彷彿完全沒有底限可言,至少我看不出來究竟有沒有什麼事是不管再大的利益,他們也絕對不幹的。

Oscar Romero Award頒獎時,找來Susan Sontag致詞(全文另外登),她在致詞中,特別向若雪以及另一位嚴重腦傷、仍處於重度昏迷的人肉盾牌致敬;這位人肉盾牌,是個英國人,從曼徹斯特來的一位大學生,叫做Tom Hurndall。他在保護幾名躲子彈的巴勒斯坦小孩時,自己被打中頭部,子彈從後腦穿入。

甘地曾說,他絕不會對懦夫(cowardly man)鼓吹非暴力。我覺得這話不太對,標準太高。因為甘地認為從事非暴力必須比當一名不怕死的戰士具有更高的勇氣。這樣的高標準,我看只有極少數人才做得到,比方說人肉盾牌。可是,我們做為懦夫和勇士之間的一種平凡人,仍然可以做到一點,那就是:你要強迫我做什麼都行,但是,我的屈服和懦弱總有個極限,世上總該有些事是我無論如何都不做的。

要做到這一點,應該不難吧?!不過,說它不難,有時候好像又很難,因為即便是最低的底限,也仍然得付出巨大的代價。


INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

Beit Sahour, Occupied Palestine

Media Advisory

Update on Detention of Two British Activists at Erez Border Crossing

2003. 5. 10. AM 05:06

It has been twenty eight hours since, at 8:30 PM on Thursday evening, May 8, 2003, two British internationals were detained at Erez border crossing at the entrance to the Gaza strip. The Internationals are Nick and Alice. Both have been held at the crossing with no arrest and no charges. The police have actually refused to arrest them. There is no reason to arrest them. There are no charges pending.

Neither Nick or Alice have had any sleep. There is no place to sleep at the border crossing. Nick was interrogated for many hours by the Shin Bet (Security Services).

They are being told that they are being deported. Alice has said that their plans were to leave the country anyway. However, the pair would like to go back to Rafah to collect the remainder of their belongings, say goodbye to friends and then leave the country as planned by boat from Haifa.

Nick and Alice are being held as part of the overall
execution of a plan to remove ISM from the West Bank and Gaza. The plan targets Internationals heading to Gaza in particular. Upon arrival at the border crossing, one is presented with a form to fill out. It absolves Israel of all responsibility in the case an International is injured or killed and in addition forces the International to waive all basic rights.

Nick and Alice signed this document.

They have asked that people call Erez on 08 6741557 to
inquire why they are being held illegally and when they will be released.

For UK, Please call THE FOREIGN OFFICE 020 7008
1500, Also Contact your MP and Prime Minister

For Israel Contact Israeli Minister of Interior, Tel:
+972-2-629-4701; Fax: +972-2-629-4750

Israeli Foreign Minister, Silvan Shalom Fax: +972-2-5303704

Defense Minister, Shaul Mofaz Fax: +972-3-6916940, 6976990

Prime Minister Ariel Sharon fax: (+972-2) 566-4838 or
651-3955 or 651-2631

Tom
ISM Media Coordinator
Beit Sahour, Occupied Palestine
++972 2 277 4602


ISRAELI MILITARY INTESIFIES ASSAULT ON INTERNATIONAL PEACE
WORKERS

SIGNALLING OUT INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

2003.5.8 .

As of Thursday, May 8, humanitarian organizations working within the Gaza Strip, Occupied Palestine began receiving a new declaration created by the Israeli military. This document (included below) demands signature of all international groups working within the Gaza Strip and any internationals attempting to enter the Gaza Strip. In addition to stipulations of not holding the Israeli Government responsible for the death of internationals, the declaration specifically states that the individual signing can have no connection to the International Solidarity Movement(ISM). The ISM, a Palestinian led non-violent group which attempts to provide protection to the Palestinian people and to enable them to non-violently resist the Israeli military occupation of Palestine, has recently come under attack from the Israeli Government and Army. This attack, including the targeting of ISM volunteers that left one dead, one comatose and one severely injured, and now this new declaration, are all aimed at discrediting and inhibiting the peace work of the ISM.

COPY OF DECLARATION:

Israeli Defense Forces

Form to be filled out and submitted to IDF authorities priorto entry to the Gaza Strip

First name Family name

Nationality

Passport number

Home address

Address in Gaza

Purpose of visit in detail

Duration of visit

Organization arranging visit

Conditions of Entry into the Gaza Strip

Foreign nationals entering the Gaza Strip, please note that the IDF is committed to ensuring the safety of civilians not engaged in hostilities. However, in the current circumstances, the IDF cannot guarantee the personal safety of foreign nationals visiting the area. Although the IDF cannot accept responsibility for death, injury or damage/loss of property incurred as a result of military activity, foreign nationals visiting the area are subject to the following conditions whose purpose is to minimize the risks involved:

1. The Military Installation Area along the border with Egypt is IDF administered territory and is strictly out of bounds to foreign nationals. Please note that this area has been the site of intense hostilities and is extremely dangerous.

2. Interference or obstruction of Israeli security personnel in the performance of their duties is a criminal offence.

3. The areas adjacent to the Perimeter Fence, Israeli Settlements, Lateral Roads serving Israeli civilians and IDF positions are Closed Military Zones and are strictly out of bounds to all persons.

4. Foreign nationals are strongly advised to stay well clear of military activity.

Declaration

I declare that the details provided above are true and correct and that I have read the above conditions and agree to abide by the fully. I am aware that my failure to do so may lead to my arrest and/ or expulsion from the Gaza Strip and/or from the territory of the State of Israel. I am aware of the risks involved and accept that the Government of the State of Israel and its organs cannot be held responsible for death, injury and/or damage/loss of property which may be incurred as a result of military activity. I also undertake not to disrupt IDF operations in any way and declare that I have no association with the organization known as ISM (International Solidarity Movement) nor any other organization whose aim is to disrupt IDF operations.

Signed Date

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